Training and preparedness – To ensure effectiveness of security measures, security and non-security personnel should be trained to the highest possible level to carry out security activity. All facility personnel, including police officers, security agents, and other employees, should be trained to perform their respective security-related duties. Training for each role should be customized for relevant threats and duties. Long-term re-certification and update programs will prevent long-term deterioration of the security effort. NASS identifies training needs, starting from the individual level through team, organization and comprehensive, system training exercises. Training management platforms may be developed into a full preparedness program, incorporating a wide spectrum of factors that dictate final preparedness status.